The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an global methodical research project with a main goal of formative the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up DNA, and of identifying and map the about 20,000â€"25,000 genes of the human genome from both a physical and functional standpoint.
The project began in 1989 and was at first head by Ari Patrinos, head of the Office of Biological and Environmental investigate in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. Francis Collins directed the National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute labors.
A working draft of the genome was announced in 2000 and a complete one in 2003, with further, more thorough analysis still being published. A parallel project was conduct exterior of government by the Celera Corporation, which was officially launched in 1998.
Most of the government-sponsored sequencing was performed in universities and research centers from the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France, Germany, China and Pakistan. The mapping of human genes is an important step in the growth of medicine and other aspects of physical condition care.
While the object of the Human Genome Project is to appreciate the genetic structure of the human species, the project has also listening carefully on several other nonhuman organisms such as E. coli, the fruit fly, and the laboratory mouse. It remains one of the largest single investigative projects in modern science.
The Human Genome Project at first aimed to map the nucleotides contained in a human haploid reference genome (more than three billion). Several groups have announced efforts to extend this to diploid human genomes including the global HapMap Project, Applied Biosystems, Perlegen, Illumina, JCVI, Personal Genome Project, and Roche-454.