Genome Cultivation

Genetic engineering, also called hereditary modification, is the straight human exploitation of an organism's genome using contemporary DNA technology. It involves the prologue of foreign DNA or synthetic genes into the organism of attention. The opening of new DNA does not require the use of classical genetic methods; though traditional breeding method is typically used for the proliferation of recombinant organisms.

  1. Plant Tissue civilization
  2. Monoclonal Antibody
  3. Separation of Enzymes
  4. Synthesis of Biodegradable Plastics
  5. Blood alternate

1. Plant Tissue civilization

The method of mounting plant tissues on artificial nutrient medium beneath laboratory conditions, so as to produce original plants, is called as plant hankie culture. These may be the Meristem Culture, Embryo Culture and Anther background and so on.

2. Monoclonal Antibody

The specialized types of protein molecules produced in the laboratory are called as monoclonal antibodies. These are fashioned obviously in our bodies when any bacteria or virus invades it. Monoclonal antibodies are bent in our blood and protect us from different type of diseases. These bodies are use in identifying different types of cells. These are also employed in many diagnostic tests for bacteria and viruses. The experiment on using monoclonal antibodies for fighting against cancer are also going on crossways the world.

The genetic engineers have engineered the bacterial species E. coli to manufacture a exact protein called as Interferon. These proteins are twisted naturally by body cells to oppose viral infections. The biologically synthesized interferon has been hardened and found winning.

3. Separation of Enzymes

The Proteinaceous chemical substances of biological source that go faster biochemical reactions with no undergo any alter are called as enzymes. The term "enzyme" was coined by William Kuhne in 1867 on the foundation of his studies on yeast.

Specific enzymes can be synthesized through the application of bio- technology. These enzymes are used in various processes like removal of stains, softening of fabrics, preparation of digestible foods, processing of meat and, even the treatment of cancer.

4. Synthesis of Biodegradable Plastics

Bio- technology is currently employed in the synthesis of plastic which is biodegradable i.e. unlike other plastics; this plastic can be broken down into simpler substances by microorganisms.

The biodegradable plastic is made from lactic acid which is produced at the time of bacterial fermentation of plant materials like discarded stalks of corn. In the process, molecules of Lactic Acid are chemically grouped to form the biodegradable plastic. In fact, the biodegradable plastic is a material which has most of the properties of plastic except the property of being non- biodegradable.

5. Blood alternate

These days the figure of people needing blood transfusion is rising due to frequent accidents and diseases. In sight of these facts, biotechnologists are trying to synthesize artificial blood through bio- technology. The biotechnologists like Mary L. Nucci and Abraham Abuchowski (1998) are likely to get success in their experiments in this regard.