Brief introduction about Biotechnology:

The process of Developing and making of technological applications that uses Biological systems or living organisms is called Biotechnology. Depending on the tools and applications that are developed; it helps to modify the products or processes for a particular use. Biotechnology is also used in agriculture and food production and also in preparing medicines. The word "Biotechnology" was given by Hungarian in the year 1919. Breeding programs like artificial Selection and Hybridization are used.

Types of Biotechnology:

Medical Biotechnology:

Medical Biotechnology helps in preventing human diseases. The use of living cells and cell materials is called Medical Biotechnology. The living cells and cell materials serve the purpose for research and also helps produce pharma products and diagnostic products which eradicate human diseases. The medical research studies are conducted by the medical biotechnologists and these biotechnologists work for academic and industrial needs. The biotechnologists conduct various experiments which part of the research which helps to identify, treat numerous diseases and how to prevent diseases. The biotechnologists have been very successful in bringing various techniques in the field of medical Biotechnology. The contributions towards developing drugs and vaccines have been majorly contributed by the industrial biotechnologists. Techniques like environmental clean-up, market microbial pesticides and insect- resistant crops are all introduced by the Biotechnologists in the field of Biotechnology. In Simple words, Medical Biotechnology is the study of micro-organisms like bacteria, plants and animals. It also helps in studying enzymes which is imminent in industrial and manufacturing sectors and processes which help in producing foodstuffs, important drugs used for making medicines and synthetic hormones.

The research studies related to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the pioneer illustration of the inventions in the field of medical biotechnology also including the invention of insulin and growth hormone. The study of Genetic engineering involves in identifying the human genes and this study is done by many biotechnologists in the field of Biotechnology. Diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's syndrome can be possibly are cured with the help genetic engineering.

Industrial biotechnologists work for private companies for a particular type of research and they are involved in solving a particular medical issue or flaws in the research. Their findings are often confined to invention of new medical treatments and invention of medical drugs. The private companies hire industrial biotechnologists to meet their financial needs and goals of their business. The industrial biotechnologists generally prove and explain their findings to non-scientists; since the industrial biotechnologists lack decision making powers. Whereas, Academic Biotechnologists generally work for non profit organizations, colleges, pioneer universities and government organizations like government hospitals and labs. Most of the Academic Biotechnologists start their study and research since their graduation days.

Agricultural Biotechnology

The technique used for improvising the plants, micro organisms and animals is called Agricultural Biotechnology. DNA tests help the scientists to measure and develop solutions to enhance agricultural productivity. It also helps to enhance breeders' in order to make improvements in new crops and livestock. DNA plays a key role for new improvements and developments in Agricultural Biotechnology.

Agricultural Biotechnology is majorly used in Genetic engineering, Molecular makers, Molecular diagnostics, Vaccines and tissue culture. For decades, the farmers have been working hard to improve the quality of crops, plants and animals through selection and breeding processes. Since the twentieth century the process of breeding in agricultural biotechnology became a very imminent and a vital process for the farmers and in the agricultural industry. The process of breeding helps to enhances flavour, it is pest resistant and it helps to increase the productivity of the endth results post agricultural process. The Breeding traits are passed from one generation to another generation which help of genes which is made out of the DNA tests. According to the recent study the scientists have learned to work in accordance to the genes or the DNA which is responsible for the future changing traits in the agricultural industry. The cells those are present in all the living things including fruits, vegetables, and meat function in accordance to the genes found in the cells present in living things and eatables.

The use of modern biotechnology is very important in order to improve the quality of crops in Crop production. Few genes are transferred from one crop to another to improve the quality of each increased crop cultivated. This process of transferring the genes helps to enhance the nutritional qualities, taste and the look and feel of the eatables it also reduces the dependency of on artificial fertilizers and pesticides and agrochemical products for the cultivation of these crops.

The process of modifying the living organisms is called Animal Biotechnology. It is used in science and engineering of Animals. The main aim and goal of Animal biotechnology is to produce quality products and enhance micro organisms for a particular agricultural uses. Examples of Animal biotechnology are new breeds of animals introduced by humans and with the help of Cloning process (introducing identical animals). The traditional Breeding techniques are used in animal biotechnology decades ago.

Industrial Biotechnology:

The use of Plants, marine organisms, algae, fungi and micro organisms is called industrial Biotechnology. Biological resources are used to produce the chemicals, materials and energy required for the development of industrial goods. Industrial Biotechnology is also known by the name "white Biotechnology". It is also used to make Biobased products in certain sectors like paper, pulp, textiles, biofuels and biogas. Industrial Biotechnology helps the environmental benefits and it also helps in improving the performance of the industry and a value add to its products too. Industrial biotechnology has proved to be the most contributing, innovative and promising approaches towards the industrial growth and it has helped in lowering greenhouse gas emissions. It has also contributed the impacts in climatic change in the industrial sector and in the other sectors too. As the industrial technology improvises day by day, generations after generations it helps not only the changes in the climatic conditions but also it helps are economy to growth in the industrial sector and in the other sectors too. As the industry improvises there is growth and scope for innovation and technology. It also helps in pollution prevention, resource conservation and cost reduction. If proper measures are planned, executed and practised industrial biotechnology can be proved the largest sector in comparison to Agricultural and medical biotechnologies or sectors. Industrial biotechnology is referred to as the Third wave in Biotechnology. According to the latest study and update new industrial processes can be considered from the industrial lab study to commercial sectors or applications two to five years down the line.

Industrial Biotechnology helps in protecting the environment while it offers the business industry in cost cutting techniques and helps to create more and more markets in the business world. Also it is not a time consuming process in comparison to drug products undergo. It is considered as the most quickest and the easiest industry for the businesses and for the various markets. Since the invention of industrial biotechnology is so new that the benefits and advantages of this sector is unknown and not understood and explored by the consumers and industry itself. The improvements in the industrial processes has improved so much that certain inventions that have happened so far in the industrial biotechnology sector has helped to up-lift the industry to a greater height in the world. It is not only transforming the manufacturing process but also helping us to invent to newer products that we could have failed to imagine a couple years ago. It has helped in preventing air and water pollution this is one of the best illustrations of industry Biotechnology. Other illustration of industrial biotechnology includes the production of fermented products like beer, Cheese, Yogurt and vinegar. As time passes by invention in this sector will keep improvising and by overcoming the de-merits it will reach greater heights.

Top Biotechnology Schools and Colleges in USA